Native Case Studies

Enduring Legacies Native Cases
Irrigation Interests Threaten Precious Hoopa Tribal Fisheries, a Legal Perspective
Tom Schlosser

This case study summarizes events and links to documents describing a tribe’s struggle to protect fish resources. Since time immemorial, the Trinity River of Northwest California has been the lifeblood of Hoopa Indian culture and subsistence. The Trinity is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and it joins the Klamath about 45 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The lands of what is now northern California were aboriginally inhabited by many small tribes or bands of Indians of numerous linguistic stocks or derivations. Tribes in the general area included the Hoopa (Hupa), Chilula, and Nongatl of Athapascan linguistic derivation; the Yurok and Wiyot of Algonkian derivation; the Karok (Karuk), Shasta, and Chimariko of Hokan stock; and the Wintun of the Penutian language. Farther upstream (in Oregon), the Klamath and Modoc Tribes, from other language groups.