2013-14 Catalog

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2013-14 Undergraduate Index A-Z

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Study Abroad


Title   Offering Standing Credits Credits When F W S Su Description Preparatory Faculty Days Multiple Standings Start Quarters Open Quarters
Rachel Hastings and Steven Scheuerell
Signature Required: Winter 
  Program FR–SRFreshmen - Senior 12, 16 12 16 Day F 13 Fall W 14Winter S 14Spring This is a yearlong interdisciplinary program that incorporates sociolinguistics, geography, history, cultural ecology, global change, biocultural diversity conservation, food systems and sustainable development studies to explore how societies evolve and survive in relation to their environment and a globalizing world. Our studies are based on the belief that many cultures have developed rich linguistic and ecological traditions that have provided the means for communication, food, clothing and shelter based on a sustainable relationship with the land. More recently, cultural and economic globalization are increasingly impacting local knowledge systems worldwide, in particular when measured by changes to language, land-use and food systems. These changes, together with such factors as increasing human population, environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity and climate change, compel us to explore the ways in which knowledge systems are preserved or lost. In particular, we recognize the urgent need to preserve cultural knowledge that allows a society to be rooted in place, recognize ecological limits and provide for its needs. The Andean region of South America is an ideal region to study these issues.The academic program consists of two phases. The first phase over fall quarter will focus on program themes using texts, lectures, workshops, film, writing and local field trips. Fall quarter the program will be offered for 12 credits to provide students with the option to separately register for an appropriate Spanish language course. Selection for the second phase over winter and spring quarters will be based upon criteria including successful completion of fall quarter work, demonstrated readiness for study abroad and Spanish language ability. In winter and spring, students will be full time in the program, which will be offered for 16 credits per quarter. Winter quarter will begin with 5 weeks of travel preparations and intensive study on Peru, followed by a 15-week study abroad experience in the Cusco region of the Peruvian Andes that incorporates intensive Spanish or Quechua language study, regional travel, seminars, urban and rural home stays and independent research or service learning with local organizations. At the end of the independent project period, we will reconvene for final student presentations and evaluation conferences in the Sacred Valley near Cusco.As the former Incan capital, and home to vibrant cultures and immense biodiversity, the Cusco region of Peru offers immersion in the study of biocultural diversity and how the preservation of linguistic diversity is related to the preservation of traditional ecological knowledge, biodiversity and local food systems. While in Peru, we will continue language and cultural studies while experiencing regional initiatives to preserve cultural landscapes and indigenous knowledge systems in the midst of development pressure. Given the region's rich history, knowledge systems, architecture, agriculture, weaving, ceramics and music, we will ask how is knowledge transferred across generations and between communities, and how can traditional knowledge be maximized in sustainable development projects?  As we address these academic questions, our own experiences will also lead us on to consider on a more individual level how learning another language and traveling abroad can increase our understanding of culture and what it means to fit into place. Rachel Hastings Steven Scheuerell Freshmen FR Sophomore SO Junior JR Senior SR Fall Fall Winter
Heather Heying
Signature Required: Winter 
  Program JR–SRJunior - Senior 16 16 Day W 14Winter S 14Spring What do animals do, how do they do it and why? In this two-quarter-long investigation of animal behavior, a continuation of Genes and Evolution in fall quarter, students will answer these questions through extensive use of the scientific literature, in-depth discussions of the evolutionary and ecological theories fundamental to the study of behavior, independent research projects and several weeks in the field, including a multi-week trip to tropical ecosystems in Ecuador.Animals hibernate, forage, mate, form social groups, compete, communicate, care for their young and so much more. They do so with the tools of their physiology, anatomy, and, in some cases, culture, for reasons having to do with their particular ecology and evolutionary history. In this program, we will begin with a review of animal diversity, and continue our studies of behavior from both a theoretical and an empirical perspective. Students will be expected to engage some of the complex and often contradictory scientific predictions and results that have been generated in this field through lectures, workshops and take-home exams, as well as undertake their own, intensive field research. Some topics covered in this program will include mating systems, territoriality, female mate choice, competition, communication, parental care, game theory, plant/animal interactions and convergent evolution. Several readings will focus on one group of animals in particular: the primates, including  Continuing the focus on theory and statistics begun in Genes and Evolution, we will travel to Ecuador to study the differences and similarities between the neotropics and the Pacific Northwest, focusing on the animals and their behavior. Particular attention will be paid to the herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) that live in lowland rainforests. In spring quarter, having studied the methods, statistics and literature frequently used in behavioral research, students will generate their own hypotheses and go into the field to test them through extensive, independent field research. This work might be in Ecuador or the Pacific Northwest. Students will return to campus for the last two weeks of spring quarter to complete their data analysis and present their research.  Heather Heying Junior JR Senior SR Winter Winter
Brittany Gallagher
  Course JR–GRJunior - Graduate 2, 4 02 04 Day, Evening and Weekend Su 14Summer Session II The Republic of Fiji is a collection of 322 islands in the South Pacific Ocean, home to about 858,000 people.  Although Fijians have done little to exacerbate the problem of global climate change, they and their neighbors in the South Pacific are among the first people on the planet to experience its effects.  Issues Islanders currently face include coral bleaching, threats to mangroves and other nearshore ecosystems, rising sea levels, and declining terrestrial biodiversity, including the loss of important endemic species.MES students traveling to Fiji will observe firsthand how the Fijian government, NGOs, and everyday people address the effects of climate change; from adaptation activities at a local level to lobbying the international community through regional partnerships with other Small Island Developing States (SIDS).The social, cultural, and political dimensions of these complex environmental issues will be explored through visits to coastal and inland villages, government offices, NGOs, and the University of the South Pacific (USP).  Students will visit major environmental sites on Viti Levu, Fiji’s largest island, including two national parks and other private reserves.  Guest speakers from USP and various governmental and non-governmental organizations will visit or host our group in their offices to speak about island biodiversity, geography, political economy, and community development. Religion in Fiji is an important and complex beast: students will have the opportunity to visit the most famous Hindu temple in the country, attend village church services, and learn about Islam in Fiji.  We will spend several days at an “eco-resort” in the Mamanuca islands, snorkeling on healthy and degraded reefs and engaging in mangrove conservation activities.  Students will also spend several nights in rural villages for an immersive experience alongside Fijians and expatriates working on community development initiatives. Academic credit will be awarded in Pacific Island Sustainability for either two or four credits. Four credits will be awarded for those participating in the trip, keeping a detailed field journal, writing a summary of the experience, and researching and writing a paper on a topic of island sustainability. Two credits will be awarded for participating in the field trip, maintaining a field journal, and writing a summary of the experience. All students are required to write a self-evaluation for the instructor. Students are encouraged to contact the instructor by emailing well prior to May 1 to express interest in the course, arrange travel, and indicate topic areas of interest to be explored during the trip. More practical information will be shared during three pre-trip on-campus meetings, to be arranged at the convenience of the student cohort. , has a background in international development and sustainability. She is a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer and former Rotary International Ambassadorial Scholar.  She lived in Suva, Fiji while earning a graduate certificate at the University of the South Pacific, where she studied geography and biodiversity protection.  Her research at USP focused on the intersections of religion and ecology in the region and the associated mix of social and environmental policy and local and national levels. At Evergreen, where she earned her MES degree, she was a graduate research associate who coordinated education programs for the Sustainability in Prisons Project and she focused her thesis research on the effects of science and sustainability education on prison inmates. Brittany Gallagher Summer Summer
Marianne Bailey, Olivier Soustelle, Shaw Osha (Flores), Bob Haft, Judith Gabriele and Stacey Davis
  Program SO–SRSophomore - Senior 16 16 Day F 13 Fall W 14Winter S 14Spring ... ...—Hölderlin, "Bread and Wine" We will study art history, literature, philosophy and music in their social and historical contexts in order to understand the Romantic avant-garde thinkers and artists, outsiders in 19th- and early 20th-century Europe, and their tenuous but fruitful dialogue with mainstream culture and the emerging popular culture of the laboring class. We will emphasize French Romanticism, but will also consider the pan-European nature of the phenomenon. This era offers a figurative battlefield where concepts of art, nature and self, order and chaos, locked swords, testing the limits of rational thought. French language study will be an important component of our weekly work; students will study French at one of four levels, from beginning to advanced.The 19th century was an era of immense political change spanning revolutions, empires and finally the establishment of democracy at home, just as European imperialism spread across Africa and Asia. We will study ways in which average women and men crafted their own identities and responded to the larger social forces of industrialization, the creation of a new working class, the solidification of gender and class roles, the rise of modern cities and the redefinition of the criminal, the socially-acceptable and the outsider.In fall, our work will begin with the paintings, poems and ideas of the early Romantics. The Romantics privileged feeling, intuition and empathy. Like adepts in an ancient mystery cult, they sought to commune with Nature. Romantic philosophers, from Schopenhauer to Nietzsche, spoke of Becoming rather than Being. Rejecting Classical order, clarity and restraint, they envisioned a pure art, beyond language and depiction, which speaks musically through color, passion, suggestion, enigmatically, as do dreams.In winter, focus will turn to the late Romantics. Decadents pushed the Romantic temperament and aesthetic to extremes through self parody and the aesthetic of fragmentation. Symbolists attempted to express the inexpressible through their art. Yet Mallarmé, Wilde and Yeats, Moreau and Gauguin, among others, helped prepare the “rites of spring” of the dawning 20th century, the arising vanguard of modernist and postmodern movements.In spring quarter, students may pursue individual research/creative projects on campus or may travel to France for 10 weeks. There they will study in a Rennes, Brittany, language school, do cultural and historical study in Paris and Lyon, as well as make side trips for research of their own.In this program, students will gain a significant grasp of key ideas in art, history and thought within their context, and will have the opportunity to specialize, creating advanced work in their choice of history, art history or writing and literature. We expect strong interest and background in humanities, and considerable self-discipline and motivation. The workload, including French language study, will be substantial and rigorous. Students will work in interdisciplinary all-program sessions and assignments, as well as choose one of three possible seminar groups. These emphasize: 1) literature and philosophy, 2) history, and 3) photography and visual arts, practice and theory. Marianne Bailey Olivier Soustelle Shaw Osha (Flores) Bob Haft Judith Gabriele Stacey Davis Sophomore SO Junior JR Senior SR Fall Fall Winter
Tomoko Hirai Ulmer
  Program FR–SRFreshmen - Senior 8 08 Day, Evening and Weekend Su 14Summer Session I Experience Japan is an intensive, in-country program that gives students first-hand experience of contemporary Japanese culture, society and language. During the three-week program you will live and take classes at Tamagawa Universty in Tokyo, engage in activities with Tamagawa students, meet local residents, conduct research on a topic of your choice and go on field trips in the Tokyo area. Classes at Tamagawa University are regular bilingual classes on Japanese culture and society. Extra-curricular activities and field trips will be arranged according to your research topic and interests, and will include visits to Tokyo's historically and culturally significant sites and nearby towns such as Kamakura. Admission is open to all students regardless of language ability. Interested students should contact faculty via email at ulmert@evergreen.edu and attend an explanatory meeting either on Wednesday, April 2 or Friday, April 4. The past participants will be there to answer your questions as well.   Tomoko Hirai Ulmer Freshmen FR Sophomore SO Junior JR Senior SR Summer Summer
Sean Williams
Signature Required: Fall 
  Program JR–SRJunior - Senior 16 16 Day F 13 Fall W 14Winter S 14Spring This yearlong program explores Ireland and Irish America through the lenses of history, literature, politics, spirituality, language, film and the arts. In fall quarter, we begin with Irish ways of understanding the world, focusing on the roots of pre-Christian spirituality and traditional culture. We will examine the blend of pre-Christian and Christian cultures in the first millennium C.E., and move forward to the layered impact of the Vikings, Normans and English. We end fall quarter with the Celtic Revival (Yeats, Joyce and others) at the turn of the 20th century. In winter quarter, we shift to Irish America for four weeks, then return to Ireland for the 20th century and into the present.Most weeks will include lectures, seminars, small group work, songs, play reading out loud, instrumental music practice, poetry, and a film. Short pre-seminar papers will be required to focus your attention on each week's texts. In fall quarter, three papers are required (on ancient Ireland, the English conquest, and the Celtic Revival). In winter, two large papers are required (on Irish America and contemporary Ireland). At least one work of visual art will be required in each quarter. The last week of fall and winter quarters will focus on collaborative student productions. Students will learn to cook Irish food for a food-and-music gathering once each quarter.Every student is expected to work intensively with the Irish-Gaelic language all year; no exceptions. Our work will include frequent lessons and short exams in grammar and pronunciation, as well as the application of those lessons to Gaelic-language songs and poetry. If you cannot handle Gaelic study or do not take it seriously, do not sign up for this program. Similarly, you will be expected to learn to sing and play Irish music on a musical instrument if you cannot already play one. We will practice this music each week, and we will be bringing musical instruments to Ireland.Early spring quarter, we will travel to the small village of Gleann Cholm Cille in Donegal, the northernmost county of the Republic. Students will spend four weeks improving their language skills, learning traditional skills (singing, dancing, poetry writing, drumming, tin whistle playing, weaving, knitting) and exploring the region, which is rich in archaeological features like standing stones and dolmens. Students will also have the opportunity to spend two weeks doing individual learning in Ireland; that project will become part of their final work. Upon their return at the end of May 2014, students will write a significant integrative essay, combining the theory of Irish Studies with what they have learned in the practice of living and studying in Ireland. Sean Williams Mon Tue Wed Thu Junior JR Senior SR Fall Fall
  Program FR–SRFreshmen - Senior 4, 8 04 08 Day, Evening and Weekend Su 14Summer Session I : This study-abroad program will explore two great cultural centers of Russia, Moscow and Kazan.  For most of this excursion, students will be hosted by environmental studies faculty at Kazan Federal University, one of the most prestigious universities in Russia.  This program offers a truly a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to collaborate with local students and faculty in Russia, in close cooperation with experienced Evergreen faculty members, as we explore the history and environment of this region. Moscow is Russia’s Eternal City, the old and the new capital of all the Russias. In Moscow, the group will take guided tours of major historical sites, including the Moscow Kremlin, the Armory Museum, the Tretyakov Art Gallery, Novodevichi Convent and Monastery, and the Trinity-St. Sergei Monastery outside the city. Then participants will take a night train to Kazan on the Volga River, the very heartland and capital of Tatarstan, a semi-independent republic in the middle of Russia. Kazan was the capital of the last Tatar successor state, re-conquered for Russia by Ivan the Terrible, in 1552. It is where the Asian East meets the Russian West, the population evenly divided between the Volga Tatars and Russians. The Tatars are Sunni Muslims, and the Russians are Eastern Orthodox Christians. In Kazan, student travelers will receive lectures on the culture, geography, and environmental history of Tatarstan from the faculty of Kazan Federal University. They will visit several cultural sites in and around the city, including the Kazan Kremlin, the city art museum, and archeological exhibits. The primary activities of the group in Tatarstan, however, will be several ecological field trips to protected areas, such as the Volga-Kama Nature Preserve (Zapovednik). The group will then return to Moscow, where, time permitting before our flights home, we will perhaps stroll along the Arbat, pay our respects at the monument of Russia’s unknown soldier, lay some flowers at the foot of the statue of Russia’s greatest poet, Alexander Pushkin, or spend a few quiet moments in one of the city’s famous churches, listening to a Russian choir singing a sacred mass. And wherever we go, we will enjoy Russian and Tatar food, sights, sounds and hospitality.   Credit equivalencies may include: Russian Studies, Environmental History, Political Ecology, and Geography John Baldridge Thomas Rainey Freshmen FR Sophomore SO Junior JR Senior SR Summer
Michael Clifthorne
Signature Required: Fall  Winter  Spring 
  Program SO–SRSophomore - Senior V V Day F 13 Fall W 14Winter S 14Spring Consortium is a formal relationship with other institutions to increase travel abroad opportunities for Evergreen students. More than 300 destination programs are offered through consortium, and financial aid can be used to pay for approved program costs. Evergreen students pay the consortium's tuition and fees; they do not pay Evergreen tuition or fees when enrolled in consortium. Enrollment is recorded at both the consortium and at Evergreen; Evergreen students register at Evergreen with a special Course Record Number created specifically for the designated consortium and retain their student status. The Alliance for Global Education offers interdisciplinary study programs in India and China. In India, students can focus on issues of public health, Indian studies, development or the environment, in programs located in Manipal, Pune and Varanasi. In China, students can focus on issues of globalization, development, business, politics, social change and Chinese language, in programs located in Xi'an, Beijing or Shanghai. Internship opportunities are available in both countries. Full semester and summer options. Students earn 15 semester credits (22 quarter credits). The American University in Cairo is a premier, full-service, English-language university founded in Cairo, Egypt, in 1919. Students can focus on a wide range of disciplinary studies through the semester or summer options as study abroad, non-degree students or they can focus on intensive Arabic language through the Intensive Arabic Program. Credits will vary by individual enrollment, but typically range from 15 to 18 semester credits (22 to 27 quarter credits). The Center for Ecological Living and Learning offers programs in Iceland, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras and Kenya that focus on sustainability, environmental issues, experiential learning and close connection to local communities. Students earn 15 semester credits (22 quarter credits) The Center for Global Exchange provides a set of interdisciplinary study abroad programs sponsored by Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minn. Students can focus on issues of gender and social change, international business, migration, globalization or social work in Mexico; sustainable development and social change in Central America; or nation building, globalization and decolonization in Namibia. Language study and internships, as part of or in addition to the programs, are available. Students earn 16 semester credits (24 quarter credits). The Council for International Educational Exchange provides study abroad programs in conjunction with multiple university sites in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Australia. Students can choose from a wide variety of disciplines, with programs taught either in English, the local language or both. Students earn 15-18 semester credits (22-27 quarter credits) The Danish Institute for Study Abroad offers 14 coordinated programs in Architecture and Design, Biomedicine, Child Diversity and Development, Communication and Mass Media, European Culture and History, European Politics and Society, Global Economics, International Business, Justice and Human Rights, Medical Practice and Policy, Migration and Identity/Conflict, Pre-Architecture, Psychology, Public Health, and Sustainability in Europe. All programs and courses are taught in English, with the exception of Danish language and culture studies. Students earn 15-18 semester credits (22-27 quarter credits). Educational Programs Abroad arranges internship placements in several European countries: England, Scotland, Germany, Belgium, and Spain. Students typically intern 30-35 hours per week, with one or two supplemental classes. Adequate fluency in the language is often, but not always, required. Students earn 16 quarter credits, with options to earn more through special coursework with the University of Rochester and at additional cost. The Institute for Study Abroad, operated through Butler University in Indiana, connects students with multiple university sites in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico and Peru. Students enroll in regular university course offerings, with opportunities for internships as well. Fluency in Spanish is required for most Latin American studies programs, with some options for students with lower-level Spanish skills. Students earn 15-18 semester credits (22-27 quarter credits). Summer programs also available. The Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington, Seattle, offers Evergreen juniors and seniors a chance to spend one year in the program, focusing on one of 14 regional study areas: Africa, Canada, China, Comparative Religion, European, International, Japan, Jewish Studies, Korea, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East, Russia-Eastern Europe-Central Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia studies. Students earn 12-18 quarter credits each quarter, depending on class selection. Evergreen can only recommend a small number of students to this program, so it is competitive, with applications due each March for the following year. Living Routes Ecovillages provides interdisciplinary instruction in the areas of sustainability, environmental issues, green design and technology, permaculture studies, organic agriculture, fair trade, women's empowerment, bioregional studies, and other issues. Semester programs are offered in Costa Rica, India, Israel, and Scotland with January and summer programs in India, Mexico, Australia, Brazil, and Peru. Living Routes US-based programs are not available for consortium credit. Students earn 15-18 semester credits (22-27 quarter credits) through the University of Massachusetts - Amherst. International Partnership for Service Learning offers programs that combine language, area studies and community service placements in a number of countries: Australia, Ecuador, France, Ghana, India, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Scotland, Spain and Thailand. Students gain valuable experience serving in a variety of community organizations. Semester and summer programs available. 15-17 semester credits (22-25 quarter credits). The School for International Training offers a wide variety of interdisciplinary programs in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East that focus on the arts, cultural expression, global health, identity and globalization, environmental issues, post-conflict transformation, social movements, human rights and sustainable development. Programs entail language, thematic studies, independent study projects and close connection to local communities. Students earn 16 semester credits (24 quarter credits). Summer programs are also available. The School for Russian and Asian Studies offers programs throughout the European, Central Asian and Siberian regions of the former Soviet Union on a wide variety of topics: Central Asian Studies, Acting in Russia, Russian Studies Abroad, Translation Abroad, Art in Russia, The Russian Far East, The Russian Psyche, Museums and Art Restoration, Kyrgyz Adventure, Politics and International Relations, Internships and more. Students earn 15-18 semester credits (22-27 quarter credits). SEA Education Association offers programs that focus on ocean exploration, documenting change in the Caribbean, oceans and climate, sustainability in Polynesian island cultures and ecosystems, and energy and the ocean environment. Students spend the first part of the semester in Woods Hole, Mass., preparing for the second part of the semester when they embark on tall-masted sailing ships to continue studies at sea and among island communities. The program offers both Atlantic and Pacific routes. Students earn 16 semester credits (24 quarter credits). Options for upper-level credits are available. Summer programs offered as well. Studio Arts Centers International in Florence, Italy, offers undergraduate options for study in more than 20 studio art and design programs, art history, art conservation and Italian language and culture. Graduate level studies are also available. Students earn 15-18 semester credits (22-27 quarter credits). The University of Arizona - Russia program offers the opportunity to study Russian language and culture in Moscow during the academic year, with summer options in St. Petersburg. Students receive 20-30 hours of instruction per week depending on their level placement. The program takes place at the GRINT Language Center at the Moscow Humanities University. Options for internship placement in Moscow also exist. Students earn 15 semester credits (22 quarter credits). Wildlands Studies offers programs through a number of environmental field projects in several countries: Australia, Belize, Chile, China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Fiji, India, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zambia. Wildlands' domestic US programs are not eligible for consortium status. Students are engaged in field studies for seven-week periods typically, and many include cultural studies since communities are part of local environmental systems. Student earn 12 semester credits (18 quarter credits) at the upper-division level, typically distributed across both science and cultural studies, issued through California State University at Monterey Bay. Michael Clifthorne Sophomore SO Junior JR Senior SR Fall Fall Winter Spring
Lin Crowley
  Program FR–SRFreshmen - Senior 8, 12 08 12 Day Su 14Summer Full This interdisciplinary study-abroad program offers an introduction to Chinese culture through the lenses of language and social and political systems. Students will experience Taiwan, the Republic of China, one of the four Asian Tigers up close. We will travel to the city of Taipei, (the capital of the Republic of China), Tainan (a historical gem), and Kaohsiung (the largest harbor in Taiwan), to learn about the modern Chinese business and cultural centers in a modern democratic republic. Students will have the opportunity to witness modern, traditional, urban, suburban and rural life in this land and discover how Chinese traditional culture coexists with a modern westernized society. The program includes academic study at two of the Chinese universities in Taiwan. There will be language study, day trips, and guided study tours to museums, including the National Palace of Museum and historical sites. Students can also explore the blossoming artistic and cultural scenes on this beautiful tropical island. China is one of the world’s oldest and richest continuous cultures. It is one of largest trading partners of the United States, while Taiwan, with its Chinese roots, focuses investment in latest information technology, advanced sustainable agriculture and ecological development, which made it an international trading powerhouse with impressive foreign exchange reserve. Students can examine the contemporary Chinese culture in Taiwan and how it exerts its influence to the world by working with its Chinese counterpart on the mainland. We will also have a closer look into Chinese ethnic culture, religion, and its people. During the first session of the summer, all students will travel with the class for a three week study trip. After the study trip, students will return to Evergreen campus to continue their studies in the second session using on-line resources and communication for continuous Chinese studies. Portfolios including video and/or blog documentary can be developed from the study trip. Enroll for eight credits for first session only or 12 credits for the full summer session.  Students enrolled for 12 credits will continue to meet on campus during second session to work on video or photo journals documenting the trip and reflect on the learning through seminars, readings, and film discussions on related topics and issues. For more information please contact the faculty or see  Lin Crowley Wed Sat Freshmen FR Sophomore SO Junior JR Senior SR Summer Summer